Skip to main content

Full text of "Annual Reports of the Superintendents of the Yellowstone National Park, 1934"

See other formats









f /7, 57f 

Vof. //* 




wm& m 



Accidents . 5 


Animals 13 

Anniversary - Golden Wedding (Riley). ... 5 

Appropriations 5 

Auto Treks, Lectures, Guided Trips 10 


Bathhouse Operations 4-22 

Bears, Black 13 

Bears, Grizzly 13 

Beer and Wine, Sale of 

Boat Company, Yellowstone Park. 23 

Buffalo Ranch Activities 12 

Buildirg Maintenance and Construction ... 19 

Bureau of Public Roads. * 23 

Business and Professional Women's Clubs. . 1 

Camps Company, Yellowstone Park 22 

Civilian Conservation Corps. . 22 

Civil Service 4 

Civil Works Program. 21 

Cooperating Bureaus 23 

Bureau of Public Roads 23 

Post Office. • 23 

Weaker Bureau 23 


Deaths 26 


Electrical Department 18 

Emergency Conservation Work 20 

Emergency Construction 16 

Engineering Department 15 


Fire Protection 12 

Fishing Season 3 

Fish Planting 14 

Forestry 11 

Fuel Company, Yellowstone Park 23 


General 1 

Guided Trips, Lectures, Etc 10 


Hamilton, C. A . . • 22 

Haynes Picture Shops, Inc 22 

Hay Ranches 12 

Highways, Improvement of 4 

Hotel Company, Yellowstone Park 22 


Improvement of Highways 4 

Insect Control 11 


Labor Situation 3 

Lectures, Auto Treks, Guided Trips 10 


Mechanical Department 19 

Miscellaneous 26 


Naturalist Department 8 

Office of National Parks, Buildings and 

Reservations 3 

Old Faithful Swimming Pool 4 

Opening of Park 1 

Park Operators • • 22 

Personnel • 5 

Personnel, Naturalist Department 8 

Personnel, Protection Department 10 

Pi Beta Phi Sorority ....• 1 

Post Office 23 

Predatory Animals • 13 

Protection Department 10 

Protection Department, Summer Activities • . • • 10 

Protection Department, Winter Activities . . . . 10 

Pryor and Trischman 22 

Public Works Program 16 


Revenues 6 

Road Conditions 4 


Sanitation Department • 17 

Swimming Pool, Old Faithful 4 


Temporary Status of Ihployees 3 

Trail Construction and Maintenance 12 

Travel 6 


U. 3. Public Health Service (Sanitation). .... 17 

Visitors 26 

Vital Statistics 26 


Waterfowl 14 

Weather Bureau • 24 

Wildlife in Park 13 

Wine and Beer, Sale of 5 

Yellowstone Park Boat Company .23 

Yellowstone Park Fuel Company 23 

Yellowstone Park Hotel Company 22 

Yellowstone Park Lodge ani Camps Company ... 22 
Yellowstone Park Transportation Company .... 23 

Roger W. Toll, Superintendent 


i previous years the reports of the Superintendent have covered 
feist ruction season and included the period from October 1 to 
«>er 30. Office Order No. 274 from our Washington office provides 

le annual report for 1934 cover the period from October 1, 1933 
q; 30, 1934, inclusive, the end of the fiscal year. This change 

lerefore preclude a comparison of travel for one season as 
oi; another and will include the period to June 30 only. It will 

Liminate the activities for the mast of the 1934 season hut such 
iition will "be carried in the annual report for 1935. 

ae sixty-second season of the park officially opened to motorists 
I 1, when the north, west and east gates "began admitting cars and 
fig the -,3.00 entrance fee. Because of the very mild^ winter with 
bnowfall it was possible to clear the park highways of snow earlier 

a previous years , some of which were open "before the first of 
p The south gate was cleared on April 21, the earliest in park 
cy. Travel via the south gate was not permitted until May 9. 
lists were admitted via the east gate on April 29 which was con- 
hbly earlier than previous years. 

he early opening of the roads naturally resulted in an increase 
bvel. The travel to the end of May showed an increase of 122^ 

(the percentage of increase to the close of the fiscal year was 
Designated "by Secretary of the Interior Ickes as "National 
ear" much excellent publicity was secured during the winter and 
tj; months and the travel to the park has proven conclusively that 
jople of the country have again become park conscious. No one 
lihave dared to predict such a large percentage of increase as 
iiown at the end of the fiscal year. If the travel continues as 
i- during the earlier part of the season the 1934 travel year should 
[iCh the record of 19 29 and exceed the travel of any other year, 
icrease in visitors was reflected in the rail travel as well as 
iitQiviohile travel, which has been very beneficial to the Trans- 
ition, Hotel and Lodge Companies, as well as the other park opera- 
nd the railroads serving the park. The railroads have made very 
Istive rates for summer travel to the West, which perhaps has 
aost responsible for the increase in travel to the park by rail. 
jil conventions, including the Pi Beta Phi Sorority, and the Busi- 
ttid Professional Women's clubs aided in boosting' the rail figures. 
I end of June 1415 rail visitors entered the park as against 521 
5 same date last vaar. The total travel to June 30 was 60,090 
3 ajainst 33,306 33. 


The large increase in travel naturally had its effect on the "busi- 
ness of the operators and all operations were reporting a considerable 
increase over last year. The Hamilton Store at Old Faithful "began 
taking care of visitors on April 10, The house counts at the hotels 
and lodges were considerably in excess of last year, while the trans- 
portation line, the general stores, cafeterias, gasoline filling sta- 
tions, picture shops and fuel yards showed a marked increase in busi- 
ness up to the end of the fiscal year. 

The winter was the mildest that has "been recorded in the park, 
and the snowfall was very light* Not one day was lost "by CWA workers 
during the winter and spring months and it was possible to carry on 
this work without interruption* The month of May broke all May 
records for heat and dryness and the seven months from October to 
April all recorded temperatures above normal. Never before in the 
years of record, since 1887, was there an unbroken succession of 
these seven months with the temperature of each above normal* Follow- 
ing the dry weather in May, June set a new record for rainfall for 
that month, being the wettest June recorded since the establishment 
of the Weather Bureau in the park* This precipitation resulted in 
"beautifying the park and aided materially the depleted condition of 
the range* The wet weather delayed travel somewhat on some of the 
roads under construction in the park "but few complaints resulted* 

The fishing season opened on May 26 and immediately excellent 
catches were reported by visitors leaving the various gateways* The 
low water in the park streams and lakes improved fishing conditions 
throughout the park* A check of visitors leaving the park showed 
36,427 fish caught to June 30 as against 18,394 to the same date last 

lake Hotel and Mammoth Hotel remained closed for the season 
while Lake Lodge was reopened to persons seeking housekeeping ac- 
commodations in the Tower Palls area were accommodated at Roosevelt 
■kxl-e. Rail visitors were permitted to make the loop trip in 5g days 
as against 4& days in former years and the railroads sold park tours 
on the 3-g- days oasis, the rate via the hotels for r.oom without hath 
"being ^45.00 as against ^38.00 for the park trip via the lodges. The 
housekeeping cat ins and cafeterias particularly enjoyed a large in- 
crease in "business and it is evident that more people are seeking this 
t; pe of accommodati 

Several smail fires were reported up to the end of the fiscal year 
"but the park did -ot experience any fires of a serious nature. While 
the dry weather in May presented a fire hazard there was little danger 
of forest fires in June. 

The employment of men on park projects aided materially in re- 
ducing unemployment in the adjoining states, particularly in Park County 
Montana and Park County, Wyoming. With the CWA work under way from 
December to April it was possible t:> employ s >me 200 men from Livingston 
and Cody on these projects. The early spring permitted the contractors 
to get to work on their projects nich sooner then would have "been 
possible in ordinary \e ars an & many men found employment with these 
contractors. Likewise the ECW activities with the reestahlishment of 
four camps which operated last year and two additional camps, provided 
employment for a number of local people. The decrease in the hours of 
labor under the o erators code caused the increasing o their forces 
which provided additional employment. This increase in employment has had 
a very favorable effect on the business in the neighboring tov;ns and ' 
the large increase in park travel has also been reflected in tourists 
business in the adjoining states, especially in Qit^es .and towns on the 
main highways leadin to and from the park. 

The excellent weather of September, October and November per:- it ted 
persons to isit the park until a late date and accommodations were 
available at the Hamilton store at Lake until Oct ber 10 while the Old 
Faithful store took care of late visit. rs until November 5. There were 
very few storms to hinder travel and all of the road were open during 

On October 1, 1933 all permanent employees were placed on a tem- 
porary status and all annual ,and sick leave was withdraw. On Nobember 
1, 1933 all leave privileges were restored and the permanent personnel 
reappointed. On February 1, 1934 the legislative deduction of 15% on 
July 1, 1954. On March 2, 1934 President Roosevelt signed „he Interior 
Department -appropriation Bill which provided, among other things, for 
the resoration of the name "National -ark Service" to repiace the name 
"Office of National Parks, Buildings, and .Reservations," which was 
adopted last August. 


The placing of all employees excepting common laborers, te.p 
ary rangers, and ranger naturalists tinder Civil Service is workig 
very satisfactorily except in some cases there has "been consider^ 
delay in getting the men to report at the time the work opens, h 
furloughing of employees at the end of the working season permit 
employing them the next season without regard to their standing a 
the register. This is working very satisfactorily once the emplj 
•are selected for the various positions. All truck drivers were a 
ployed from the registers for the first time this year, register 
"being available last year for most of the other skilled position. 

Many compliments were received regarding the marked improva 
in the park highways. While travel was delayed some "because of b 
construction work under way, within two or three years the grand) 
highway in the Yellowstone as well as the entrance roads leading! 
it will "be more modern standards and comparable to any of the hi 
found in the surrounding states. The improvement of the highway 
Golci Gate received much favorable comment from park visitors, T 
now a high gear road from Mammoth to Old Faithful with travel su 
from Mammoth to Obsidian Cliff -and a permanent oil surface from 
Obsidian L liff to Pirehold Cascades. The section from Firehole 
Cascades to Old Faithful has been let for grading. On the east 
of the Park construction work is under way on the section from C 
to Bridge Bay and from Arnica Creek to the south entrance. The 
from Canyon to Mammoth, via Dunraven Pass and Tower Falls has be 
practically all graded or graveled and the remaining portion is : 
under construction. The stretch from lake Butte to lake Junctio; 
the east entrance road is under construction, A contract has be< 
let and work is under way on a section of the T ^wer Falls-Cooke : 
from Soda Butte to Cooke. 

Mr. C, A, Hamilton, who took over the bathhouse operations 
H, P. Brothers at Old Faithful and Fishing ride on June 20, 1931 
began remodeling his Old Faithful swimming pool last fall and cor 
pieted the work during the spring so that it was operating when " 
park officially opened. This swimming pool has proven quite opul 
durin-- the warm summer days. It is closed and has a glass top. 

Despite the fact that the season was advanced this year, ee 
visitors were rewarded by seeing much park game. Moose were in « 
dence almost daily in Willow Park while the antelope were seen ai 
Gardiner and between Gardiner and Mammoth, A band of mountain si} 
frequented the Mt, Washburn region. The bears, although somewhat 
late in making their appearence, were seen in the various park ar 
The construction of a new road into the bear feeding grounds at 
Canyon delayed them from making their appearance nightly for the 
from the dining rooms of the hotels and lodges. As soon as the r 
per itted travel the show went on and each night there was a fine 
play of girzzl: bears. Following the opening of the hotel and lo 
at Old Faithful the bear show at that point was put on ni htly at 
bear feeding grounds with a large attendance for most of the pero 
mances. Measures to rid the park of bad bears had had its effect 

lessening the "bear damages and injuries and comparatively few com- 
plaints reached the superintendent's office. No serious personal 
injuries caused "by "bears were reported. Many visitors saw deer 
while one large "bull elk at Norris Junction was the subject for 
number ous still and motion pictures, i 

The park policy with regard to the sale of "beer, wines and 
liquors remained the same as in force in 1933, namely that the al- 
coholic content should not exceed 3,2$. 

A serious accident, resulting in the death of Carl Johnson of 
Livingston, Montana occurred on the Marmot h Tower Fails road about 
2g- miles from Tower Palls on Octoher 31, 1933, Six men were riding 
in a truck "belonging to Fred Lindsay, sub-contractor for one of the 
contractors on the Red Lodge-Cooke road, when the driver lost control 
and the car went over a "bank, turned over twice and half "buried it- 
self in the hillside, Mr, Johnson was killed while the other occu- 
pants of the car were considerably .stunned and "bruised, 

Mr. and Mrs # William Riley hold the distinction of celebrating 
the first Gold Wedding .anniversary in Yellowstone Park as far as 
park records disclose. The Rileys had been married 50 years on March 20, 
1934, Mr, Riley has been in the employ of the Park Service sincd 1919 
and retires from active service July 31, 1934. 


Personnel: The permanent personnel consists of Roger W. Toll, 
Superintendent; Guy D, Edwards, Assistant Superintendent; Joseoh Joffe, 
Assistant to the Superintendent; Benjamin A # Hundley, Chief Clerk; 
Francis W, Watson, Disbursing Clerk; Parke W, Soule, Senior Clerk and 
Bookkeeper; Verna M» Roe, Clerk-Stenographer; Constance P. v/hitney, 
Clerk-Stenographer; Virginia J, Goettlich, Timekeeper; Keith Neilson, 
Voucher Clerk; Edwin C. Stevens, Clerk in Chief Ranger* s office. At 
the close of the fiscal year the position made vacant by the resigna- 
tion of Mary L, ^iller, Clerk-Stenographer, had been recommended for 
filling by the appointment of William H, Katus, This forcd is aug- 
mented during the summer season with two clerk-stenographers, one 
statistical clerk, one publicity clerk and one card clerk. Also, one 
stenographer, Jerry P. Tonini, assigned to the superintendent during 
the winter at his headquarters office in Denver on work in connection 
with inspection of proposed parks and monuments, is transferred to 
the park luring the summer season. The maximum number of employees 
on the payroll at one time was 469, consisting of 74 permanent and 
395 temporary employees, 

A ^propriations; Appropriations for the fiscall year TJ34 are 
as follows: 

♦44433,3 Yellowstone National Park, 1934 $326,255.0( 

44406.3 Forest. Protection & fire Prevention, 1934 10, 550. OC 
44405.3 Emergency Reconstruction & Fighting Forest 

Fires, 1934 7,797. 3* 

4x409 Extension, Winter Feed Facilities, Game 

Animals, Yellowstone National Park 3, 250. 5( 

4x436 Roads and Trails, National Parks 123,730.60$ 

43436.1 Roads and Trails, National Parks, Emer- 
gency Construction, 1933 194,723.70 
4-03-5640.8 National Industrial Recovery, Interior, 
National Parks, Roads & Trails, 1933- 
40-35640.14 National Industrial Reoovery, In- 
terior, National Parks, Buildings & 
Reservations, 1933-35 262,803.54 

f^J.,000 reserved for Washinrton ,offic,e expenditures and §138/ 
for unallotted reserve. 

**Re verse figure shown since several ma^or obligations and ai; 
ments were transferred to other road appropriations. 

Revenues for 1954 Fiscal Year: Revenues ag gregating $164, 6?/, 
were received from the following sources during the fiscal year and 
deposited in the Treasury of the United States as Miscellaneous Rec< 

Automobile and motorcycle permit fees §135,205.00 

Franchise and permit fees 25,072.54 

Electric current 2,257.40 

Water 545.88 

Miscellaneous , 1,541.23 



Due to the unusually mild and early spring the park roads wer< 
of snow much earlier than usual, and the .entrance stations were opei 
the sale of permits started on May 1. Consequently the increase in 
season travel has brought the travel figures up %o 60,070 visitors 1 
October 1, 1933 and June, 30, 1934, inclusive, as compared with 33, 3( 
visitors for the same season of a year ago, an increase of 26,764. 
comparative study of automobile travel shows that 18,771 motor vehic 
entered the park between October 1, 1933 and June 30, 1934, as compt 
with 10, 345 for the same period last year, an increase of 8,426. r . 
has been a total of 1,415 visitors by rail between October 1, 1933 i 
June 30, 1934, as compared with a total of 521 for the same period '. 
year, an increase of 994. A comparison of rail travel figures for 1 
year and last year is as follows: 


























*0ct. 1 to June 30, inclusive. 

#West entrance rail travel for 1933-34 consists of 

Union Pacific System 518; CMStP&P 58; and. 

Northern Pacific 5. 
## Rail travel through the south entrance consists 

of 3 persons entering via Union Pacific System, 

through Victor, Idaho, and 4 via Chicago & 

Northwestern through lander, Wyoming. 

The number of cars and visitors reported in daily counts at des- 
ignated developed campgrounds for the period, October 1, 1933 to June 
30, 1934, inclusive: 

Designated Campground 



West Yellowstone 

Fishing Bridge 

Old Faithful 




West Thumb 

Norris Junction 

Madison Junction 

Tower Falls 
























Total season travel "by entrance gateways "between October 1, and 
June 30, 1934 and 1933 


Aut omob i le Mot ore yc le 



Gateway visitors 

cars .Pass • Vehic les 


, foot 








2076 3950 5 








2309 7007 6 








794 7203 9 








63 2474 1 














6545 20823 21 


102 12205 












































TOTALS 521 4254 13227 

11 16 133 

6080 19409 33306 


There were several changes in the staff of this departmentdurig 
this period. First, Wilfred Mead, Janitor, was transferred to the Dp 
ment of Plumbing and Sanitation on*0ctoher 23 and assi Tied full time 
janitor work, Mrs, Herma A, Baggley, Junior Park Naturalist, resign! 
take effect at the end of the calendar year. She remained on duty it 
December 16, William E, Kearns, new Junio Park Naturalist, reportedb 
work on May 23, -The permanent staff on June 30,1934 consisted of: 

Park Naturalist 
Assistand Park Naturalist 
Junior Park Naturalist 

C, Max Bauer 
George C, u rowe 
William E. Kearns 

The summer staff for June, 1934 included 18 ranger-naturalists 
clerk-stenographer and 3 laborers or caretakers for the museums. Th; 
of the ranger-naturalists were designated senior ranger-naturalists ) 
supervise the activities at Fishing Bridge, Old Faithful and Mammoth 
Hot Springs Museums, All of the museums were closed "before the firs' 
October, 1933. The opening dates for the museums are given "below: 

Mammoth Museum 
Norris Museum 
Madison Museum 
Old Faithful Museum 
Fishing Bridge Museum 

June 4 
June 16 
June 20 
June 16 
June 16 

The daily hours for each museum are as follows: 

Mammoth ! useum 
Fishing Bridge Museum 
Norris Museum 
Madison Museum 
Old Faithful Museum 

8 AM to 8 Fi 

t> Aj.'i tO 8 rl.i 

8 AM to 5 PM 

8 AM to 5 PM 

8 AIT to 9:30 PM 

An outside amphitheater for the Mammoth campground is "being con 
structed on the hillside above the camp in / area, 1 o t. i \. : . 
"being done "by the CCC. In June a small amphitheater with seating cap 
city for 75 persons, and a fireplace where constructed near the Madis 
Museum at a point from which National Park Mount ian is visible. 

Further improvements have 
museum. Through cooperation of 
was excavated during the winter 
This room is for the storage of 
and animals and the herbarium, 
where "biological and geological 

"been carried on at the headquarters 
the CWA the south end of the "basement 
and a concrete floor placed in it, 
study collections of skins of birds 
It is also to he used for a lahcrator; 
work may "be carried on "by research 

workers in Yellowstone. 

The preparation of a relief schedule has "been arranged so 
that ranger-naturalists will have regular relief during the 
summer season amouting to one :ay a week. 

The placement of a ranger -naturalist at Lest Thumh ranger 
station has greatly improved the work at that point in that there is a 
daily nature walk to Duck lake and return, and a well organized camp 
fire program with naturalist lectures every evening serving from 100 
to 150 campers. On the formation walk over the thermal area a more 
detailed description of the activities there is presented "by an ex- 
perienced geologist. 

Special naturalist service was furnished to the various con- 
ventions in session in the park. 

The pre-season lecture program of the permanent naturalists in 
the CCC camps offered on educational feature to these men. These 
lectures were continued with the aid of rangers and ranger-naturalists 
speaking one night a week in each of the six camps, on educational 
subjects pertaining to Yellowstone National Park. 

The interpretation of natural history of the park "by motian pic- 
tures was inaugurated. 

^embers of the naturalist staff cooperated both "by consultation 
and field trips with the Bureau of Public Roads and the park engineers 
relative to road location in the park. 

The research work of Dr. Arthur Howard relative to the geology 
' A 'ower Falls region was continued. 

The cooperation of the Princeton School of Field Geology was 
secured in supplying research workers to study problems in Yellowstone 
National Park. 

^onthly observations of the geysers and hot springs have "been 
: ade throughout the year and information carded. 


Activities from October 1 to June 30, inclusive 

:Field Trips: Lectures: Museum: 

Auto Caravans :Sp.Pa:r 

Station \ 

No.: Att. ! 

t No.: Att.: Att. : 


Cars : Att. : 

No.: i 


Fishing Bridge; 



Mt. Washburn i 

Nor r is 

"'est Thumb 

! 50:6388 | 
! 13: 124 i 
: 4: 57 : 
i 19: 418 

» • < 

i 37: 889 
: 20: 938 

! 14 :2920 : 

: 53 :4152 : 6418 : 

! 40 :1649 : 2885 

: 133 : 14307: 9983 : 

: : 1720 : 

I 34 : 12895: 14608 : 

: 10 : 472S 


14 « 


: 32j 
: 172! 



108 j 

575 - 

2321 ! 

2: [ 
1: L 

: 8*: | 
I 1: . 


! 171: 130374 

: 284: 38115:38228 : 



• 3004 

: 14: i 


Oct. 1 to June, 1933 
w 1 to " 1934 

49, (P 

90, (: 


General: During the extemely mild winter, conditions were un- 
usually favorable for conducting several special wild like study pro, 
in addition to the regular protection department activities of prote 
and observation of fauna and other natural features. Considerable t 
devoted to planning ofwork projects and supervision of ECW, CWA, and 
activities. Summer activities have been handicapped by the reductio; 
temporary ranger force in the face of the unexpected increase in tra^ 

Personnel: The protection department personnel consists of Chi 
Ranger George F. Baggley; "four assistants chief ranger, Harry Trischrr 

buffalo keeper; one buffalo herder and one night watchman, assigned t 
Mammoth. Assistant Chief Ranger Johnston has been assigned to ECW * 
in the Washington office since November,- 1933, Assistant Chief Range 
IaNoue was assigned to supervision of CWA work at Scotts Bluff Nation 
Monument during the winter .onths. 

Miller, Francis D. Lanoue, and Fred T. Johnston; 23 permane 
; 27 temporary rangers; one- cheif buffalo keeper, one assistar 

"'INTER ACTIVITIES: The protection department winter activities 

consisted of the regular patrols for game study and observation, spec 
game study projects, maintenance of telephone lines, removing snow fr 
the r^ofs of government buildings, waterfoul observation, reading wat 
gauges, measuring snow depths, making weather observations, game feed 
and predatory animal control. Two permanent rangers were assigne to 
supervision and plaining of CWA activities in the park during the win 
months. Some time was spent on the preparation and completion of pla 
for ECW projects and forestry projects for the summer. 

Summer Activities: Summer activities consisted of law enforcem 
contacting ann entertaining special visitors, information service to ' 


public, checking traffic at entrance stations, fire prevention and 
contr 1, construction and maintenance of trails, -preparing and main- 
taining snowshoe cabins, and supervision of ECW projects. The reduced 
number of temporary rangers, with the heavy increase in travel and 
early fire season, haa retarded summer activities considerably. CCC 
enrollees, detailed under ECW supervision, have been employed from trail 
maintenance, fire patrol, forest cleanup and other such general pro- 
tection duties as they may he sued for. 

Forestry : 

Insect Control; During the spring of 1934, two insect con- 
trol projects were in progress in the park. Roadside Ips control 
work was started in April and completed in the middle of May, Mountain 
pine bettle insect control in the Mt. Washburn section of the park was 
carried on during May and June and upon completion practically all of 
the infested area in and adjeacent to this scenic area had been treated. 

The roadside Ips control project was carried on between Obsidian 
Cliff and Madison Junction and all infested trees within 150 feet of 
each side of the road were treated. Public Works funds were used and 
$1278 was expended in treating 10,244 trees. 

The mountain paine bettle control project on Mt. Washburn covered 
5,127 acres and 2,684infested trees were treated by felling and burn- 
ing methods. Public ' orks and regular insect appropriations were used, 
approximately .7,000 being expended from the two sources, CCC labor 
was also used on this project. Three camps were established in order 
to carry on the work and 'two of these camps were off the highways and 
rati ned "by pack string. It is thought that the infestation in the 
area covered has been reduced at least to a normal stage. Included in 
the area treated this season were 728 acres of infested forest that 
only one or two new attacks were present where in 1933 there were 20 t 
30 attacks. On the east side of Mt. ^'ashburn, 138 acres of heavily 
infested forest was not treated due to lack of funds and lateness of 
the season. A heavily infested area to the West of the V'ashburn 
unit was discovered during the control operations and could not be in- 
cluded in the program. 

Forestry and fire protection work had gone forward under the ECW 
program. Such work as forest cleanup, campground planting and recon- 
struction, roadside clean p, motorway, trail, boat docks, telephone 
line and bridge construe tin have been started. 

The field data collected during the su mer of 1933 by the type 
mapping crews was compiled and tracings or the field maps were made 
during the winter. This completes two thirds of the type map of Yel- 
lowst jne Park. Since no funds were available for type-mapping work 
in the spring of 1934 no wort has been started. 


Fire Protecti n : The extemely li^ht winter together with the 
driest May on record created a serious fire hazard two months ahead if 
the usual time. Nine fires occurred prior to June 30, six having ton 
caused "by lightning and the rest were man-caused. All of these fire 
were small, "being either in Classes A. or B. 

Early in the season the six CCC camps were organized for fires 
emergencies. Lectures and instructions wer"e given and each camp was 
organized into a flying s.quadron of 50 men and two 40 men follow-up 
crews, a section of the flying squadron was given fire fighting in- 
struction each week "by the camp fire chief. Twenty-nine CCC men we: 
selected from the different camps and were stationed at the various 
ranger stations and snowshoe cahins as smoke chasers.. 

TRAIL C lioT'.VCTIQM aN.3 : kIETZHa >^S; Trail crews of one and tv 
men were employed during the early season to clear down timber fr m 
the Howard Baton and lead-in trails. Such crews were used only whei 
the distance from camp prohibited the use of CCC men. For the most 
part, trail repairs and maintenance have "been handled "by CCC labor. 
Thirty miles of trail improvement and seven miles of new trail con- 
struction was handled as Public Works and CWE projects. 

Buffalo Ranch xictivities ; a "buffalo management plan for the "i] 
lows tone herd was worked up during the winter. Other activities of 
the Buffalo Ranch consisted of feeding, caring for the "buffalo herd, 
maintenance of "buildings, corrals and machinery, and irrigation and 
management of hay landd. During Januar, and February 165 head of su- 
plus "buffalo were slaughtered and the meat distributed to various 
Indian agencies in lion tana and "'yoming. Twelve were shipped alive. 

One hundred and twenty-one tons of hay were fed to the "buffalo 
this year as compared with 314 tons of hay and 20 tons of cottonseed 
cake for last year. 

The light, open winter enabled the major portion of the head t 
find suff ic ient food for maintenance without concentrating on the f 
ing ground at the ranch. Abuut 300 head of buffalo successfully win 
tered in Pelican Creek Valley. 

Hay Ranches t The folio win- table shows the amount of hay fed I 
the various hay ranches as compared with last year: 

3 lou gh. Creek Gardiner Game Rand 

1932*313 1933-34 1932-33 1933-34 1932-33 1933- 

334 T 48 T 6 T 36 T 

The majority of game animals were uble to find sufficient natui 
subsistence without relying upon food on the feeding bounds. Conse- 
quently there was a considerable reduction in the amount of hay fed 
this year. 


Predatory Animals ; One hundred and eighty coyotes were killed this 
year as compared with 140 killed last year. 

Wildli fe in the Park: All game animals survived the winter in 
excellent condition. The few animals that dies, succumbed to old age 
rather than to exposure or lack of food. High precipitation during 
the month of June materially improved the range conditions on voth 
the summer and winter ranges. The outlook for winter feed, for the 
comin- winter is better than it has "been for the past two or three 
years. However, in spite of the record high precipitation for June 
the average precipitation is still "below normal and this, coupled with 
the heavy overgrazing on the winter range, which has caused serious 
depletion, will require stringent measures to "bring about proper re- 

B ears, Black: Black "bears were late in coming into the feeding 
grounds and utility areas having emerged from their hibernation about 
a month earilier then usual and scattering out farther into the forest. 
Unly a few of these animals were seen "by park visitors up until June 
30, Only four "bear damages were reported for the period October 1, 
1933 to June 30, 1934, as compared with 22 damages and injuires for the 
same period last year. 

Bears, Grizzly: Grizzly "bears, like the "black "bears, were also 
slow in coming to the feeding grounds. Due to the road repair:- and cons- 
truction, the Canyon feeding ground has not "been opened "but is expect- 
ed to "be in use within 10 to 15 days. The only other feeding ground 
"being used this year is the Old Faithful "lunch Counter" where one or 
two girzzly bears have been seen nightly. 

Other Animals: Beaver, snowshoe rabbits and marmots have been 
seen over the entire park and have been a source of entertainment and 
interest to park visitors. Other small animals, including maren, 
otter, mink, etc., are seldom, seen by park visitors, "but those seen by 
rangers on patrol indicate a slight yearly increase. 


One game count was made this year, i'he followin 
the counts and estimates of game animals: 

table shows 

: Actual Count s Estimated 

1933: 1934 :1933; 1934 

Increase : Condition 

19 5 o: 1934: 19^3 



Antelope : 

599: 321 : 700: 

Buffalo : 

*985: #950 :100$t 

Deer : 

396: : 850: 

Elk • : 

: 10647 : : 

Northern Herd: 

11521: :2500: 

Gallatin Herd: 

1822: 1053 :2450: 

Interior Park: 

448:No couat600: 

Lloose : 

71} n : 700: 

Sheep : 

82: 125 : 150: 

Bears, Grizzly : 

125: : 260: 

" Black : 

323: : 525: 








Yes : % : Good 
slaughtered Excel 
No : No : Poor 


: ? 

i ? 

: Yes 

Yes. Pair 

? . : Fair 

No : Fair 

Yes : Good 

Yes: Fair 

? : Excel 

? : Excel 


G od 


* Does not include 

# Does not inc lude 

nor thi: 

S shipped and 202 s 

12 shipped and 165 

.year's calf crop. 

s laught«f 

m aterf owl: Observations and counts of trumpeter swan show an. 
crease over last year. large numbers of ducks and gees were observe! 
during the fall of the year on all the lakes and streams. Fore thei 
the usual number of waterfqwl were observed in the pari- during the 
winter. Many of the streams and small lakes which ordinarily freeze 
over during the winter .were open this year and orovided an excellent 
winter habitat for these birds. 

Fish Planting: The collection of black-spotted trout eggs at 
Yellowstone Park hat.hery, operated by. the US bureau of Fisheries ui 
the direction of supervisor Fred J, Foster, has. amounted to 38, 190, C 
which number, exceeds by some six million e gs the collection any ot* 
season of operation in Yellowst ,ne Park. This is the sixth c nsecu- 
tive year that egg collections have increased over the previous seat: 
indicating that fishing cmditiont. over the park and especially in 
Yellowstone lake are improving arjiually. In addition to the black- 
spotted trout eggs 4,343,320 grayling eggs were also taken which nuir. 
ber amounts to more than a 100% increase over lastyears take. Both 
grayl ng and black-spotted tr out eggs hatched excellently and equal! 
as well as in previous seasons. 

It has been the practice to divide the eggs taken in Yellowsto 
National Park between the Bureau of Fisheries and the National Park 
Service, the National Park Service receiving one half of all eggs 
collected. Of the 17,397,500 black-spotted eggs assigned to the Par 
Service 800,^00 were sent to Idaho hatcheries to be hatched on share 
f r the Bechler River, 1,000,000 to Teton Park, 1,700,00 to Glacier 
Park, 1,250,000 to Bozeman hatcher for w e st side waters, 3^0,000 to 
T't. Rainier Park, and 12,379,190 held in Yellowstone for distributio: 
here. Of the Bureau of Fisheries* share, 17,365,810 eggs were shipp 
out of the park. Of the 4,343,320 grayling eggs eyed, 3,048,320 wer 


planted in Yellowstone, 500,000 chipped to Glacier Par: , and .45,000 
shipped out of the park "by the Bureau of Fisheries. 

In addition to the plants made in Yellowstone from the eggs hatch- 
ed here there were received and planted 350,000 rainbow fry from the 
Bit Timer, Montana hatchery; 229,150 rainbow fry from the Anaconda 
hatcher, 37,500 #3 rainbow from the Boxeman, Lontana hatcher; 8,710 
eastern or ok trout #3 from the Boxeman and 208,000 lock leven from the 
Bozeman hatchery. 

The rearing pools at L.ammoth were not operated this year due 
: ainly to the unsuit ability of the water supply, which annually has 
cauxsed considerable loss and difficulty with a "bacterial disease known 
as fin rot, one of the most difficutl to control of all fish diseases. 

Dr.. John W. Scott, P ofessor of 2 ology, Wyoming University, has 
continued his study f fish -arasites in Yellowstone Park. 

Fishermen are having good luck this year as shov.n by the fact that 
the number of fish reported as caught by park visitors to date amounts 
to 36,427 as compared with 18,394 last year. 


Engineer i ng activities are carried on under the direction of Park 
Engineer C. A. Lord and include the direction and supervision of road 
and trail maintenance, surveys, plans and construction engineering on 
roads and trails built as force account projects, engineering super- 
vision of physical improvements and any general engineering assistance 
requested by other deoartments. 

Road maintenance activities cover 361 miles of highway, 310 miles 
of which are within the park boundaries, 24 miles in the east approach 
road through the Shoshone National Forest and 27 miles. of the south 
approach road between I.'oran and the south boundary, Work under this 
item is carried on from 15 carnps established and maintained at central 
p ints during the travel season. All section crews are equipped with 
motorized equipment suitable to the cla^s of maintenance to be done. 

Since our last report, £5 miles of the main highway system have 
been reconstructed to high type standards so far as grading is concern- 
ed and ZZ miles additional surfaced with crushed rock. 

Comparatively little force account construction was carried on with 
allotments from regular park appropriations, nearly all such work be- 
ing financed from the Civil Works and Public Works emergency funds and 
reported elsewhere under the item of Emergency construction. 

Post-construction ma ntenance was carried on over the Obsidian 
Cliff -Fir ehole Cascades and eas entrance road sections, consisting 
mainly of the installation of dra nage tile to carry off sub-surface 
drainage and provide an outlet for seepage waters. Approximately 1500 


feet of tile was installed on the first mentioned section and 2700 ! < 
feet on the east entrance road. This work was financed from the 
"balance of the allot: ent set up the previous season. 

Surfacing and oiling of the subsidiary road leading to Artist; 
Point was completed, surfacing work consisting of the addition of 
fines tc the crushed rock placed during the previous season, Oilin, 
was the standard type of road mix job using about 12,' 00 gallons of 
asphaltic road oil to the mile and resulting in a three-inch oil ma- 
Two major grading projects, the T wer Junction- lava Creek seel, 
and the Terraces-Obsidian Cliff section, were accepted from the con 
tractor and placed under post -cons tract ion maintenance with Park Sui 
vice forces and enuipment. This work involved spot surfacing with 
select material, roadside cleanup, palliative oiling and the instai; 
tion of approximately 500 lineal feet of drainage tile.- 

Emergency Construction: 

Public Works Program ; Allotments covering the Public Vois 
program were made available on August 19 too late to get the full pr- 
gram under way during the 1953 season. However, 12 projects were at 
and several of them completed "before the close of the fiscal year. 

Considerable improve ent was made on the 10 mile section of th 
road "between lake and Vest Thumb, known as the lake ^hore road. One 
half mile of drainage tile was installed, steep shoulder slopes flat 
tened to prevent erosion and sever sand pockets in the roadbed 
stabilized, by the addition of clay binder. 

That section of the subsidiary road leading to Inspiration Poi;; 
west of Grand View was surfaced and given a palliative oil treatment 
The section was regraded and curves built up to standard super- 
elevation. Following fine grading a six-inch course of loose crushe< 
rock was spread and compacted and sufficient road oil applied to forr 
a dust palliative and prevent loss of fines and erosion from storms. 

The West Gallatin section was given a seal coat treatment for 1 
protection of the oil mat surface laid down during the previous seasc 
One eight gallon of naptha cutback asphalt per square yard was applie 
with pressur distributor, completely sealing the cracks and stria ic 
against moisture seepage. 

At Artist Point the parking area graded under the construction 
contract and surfaced as a minor force account project was improved 
by the construction of a masonry curb and the amplication of a three- 
quarter armor coat, or wearing surface, using crushed rock and emul- 
sified asphalt binder. 

Construction of permanent hard surfaced footpaths serving the 
Old Faithful thermal area was continued, the work consisting of the 
buildinr- of a section of trail near Grand Geyser and the construction 
of two bridges over the Firehole River, one near Inkwell Springs and 


the second in the Biscuit Basin area. 

mVi e trail leading to the headwaters of the Iamar River was in- 
proved "by relocation and. regrading and the erection of several "bridges. 
fi ow construction extended this trail about eight miles ahove its ori- 
ginal terminus. 

A new standard four horse "barn was constructed at the adminis- 
trative area at Soda Butte. The new building is of combination log 
and frame construction conforming to the type of architecture of the 
ranger station erected two year^ ago. 

Two standard snowshoe cabins were erected in the lamar district 
and near the north "boundary. This project was contracted "but erected 
under the Park Service supervision. 

Three comfort stations were erected at the' Fishing Bridge area; 
two heing let to contract for the erection of the "building proper 
with the installation of oewer and water facilities performed as 
force account "by the Park Service. The third "building was erected 
entirely "by the Park Service. 

A water system was installed at West Yellowstone, principally 
for service to the newly completed ranger station and administrative 
"building, "but also with the idea of eventual service to the public 
auto camp in that area. The structure housing the pumping unit and 
pressure tank was let to contract "but all other work was carried on 
as force account. 

The Mammoth water system was improved and increased "by the addi- 
tion of water from the Indian Creek watershed. This improvement in- 
volved the construction of a log and timber diversion dam and an 
earth canal, approximately a mile in length, to carry the additional 
water to the nresent headworks on Panther Creek and the Gardiner 

An extensive program of reconditioning old "buildinrs for the 
elimination of fire hazards was carried out at the headquarters area 
at Mammoth, iill chimeys and flues were either repaired or rebuilt 
as their condition appeared to warrant and a many construction condi- 
tions not conforming to the underwriters * code were corrected. 


This work is carried on under the supervision of H. B. Hommon 
the US Public Health Serivice and under the direct charge of William 
Wiggins , Master Plumber. Mr. Homman made a thorough inspection of 
our entire operations during the latter part of July and outlined 
necessary corrective measures. Mr. Wiggins makes regular sanitary 
inspecti ns as outlined "by Mr. Homman. 


The following work was accomplished: West Entrance PWA projeci 
constructing one complete sewer system and one water system with dec 
well gasoline operated pump and two 2,000 gallon underground storage 
tanks. Constructing two leaching cesspools for Canyon and Old Faith 
mess houses: Operating and maintaining two refrigerating plants: J. 
stalled two complete plumbing systems in the west entrance ranger 

CWA work at Mammoth consisted of installing 2000 feet of 10-ir 
fire main and "building 1200 feet of filter trench for the sewer sysli 

PWA projects at Mammoth consisted of installing complete oil- 
"burning unit in the administration "building: Installing 48 radiatoi 
in the "barracks "building, to take the place of wood stoves: Moving 
residence "building to make room for 'th construction of the new apai 
meat house. The first work was done lender Account ^349 - Eliminated 
of Fire Hazards. 

One comfort station at the Fishing Bridge Auto Camp was comple 
and installation was started of 8,000 feet of six-inch water main. 

One vacuum type chlorine machine was purchased and installed f 
the lake ewer system. 

In addition 24 water systems, 32 sewer systems and 5 incinerat 
were operated and maintained. The sixth incinerator, located at 
Thum"b was not operated, due to lack of funds. Many campgrounds and 
parking areas in the park were also operated and maintained "by this 
department. The heating systems at Mammoth, including 14 steam "boil 
were also operated and maintained "by this department. The tinsmith 
in this department is also an imprtant item as there are a great nun' 
of sheet metal roofs, ice "boxes and stoves to maintain. 


The following table shows total production f power plant and dis- 
trih tion of current for the period October 1, 1933 to June 30, 1934 
compared with similar data for the fiscal year 1933: 

F.Y. 1933 October 1, 1933 
June 30, 1934 

Sold to Park Operators 44,565 15,398 

Street lighting .,1,280 -2,080 
Used by Govt, bldgs. for 

light and power 690,074 565,935 

Total production 765,*919 603,413 

Several old buildings at Mac'moth were rewired last winter on 
Project FP 349 - Elimination of Fire Hazards. 

Three miles of cedar pole telephone line was built from the ma: 


highwa, to Biacktail Deer Greek cabin on the Yellowstone River to 
serve the snowshoe cabin during the winter. 

Approximately 10 miles of one-were grounded telephone line was from the main highway at the east entrance to Pelican snowshoe 
cabin. This line was built by ECW labor using native poles. 

We now have 394 miles of metallic circuit, 16 J. miles of grounded 
circuit and there are 231 telephones connected. 

One 50-watt low wave broadcasting and receiving station was 
installed at Mammoth and one 10-watt low wave broadcast, ng and re- 
ceiving station installed at lake besides six semi-portable sets to 
be used at various other noints in the oark and at fires. 


All carpenter work is under the general supervision of Master 
Carpenter T. A. .Bowman and painting under the supervision of Taster 
Painter L. N # Tjmpkins. 

during the past year regular maintenance accomplished by the car- 
penter consisted of building reconditioning, including the Old Faith- 
ful ranger station, the small apartment hnuse at Old Faithful, a porch 
and cellar entrance at Y/est Yellowstone ranger station, converting 
one of the large houses at headquarters into a duplex, and other 
general maintenance work. 

A cew of four carpenters in addition to the master carpenter 
was employed during the early part of this year. , 

The master pointer's work consisted of painting and staining 
buildings; papering and placing signs, of which there are more than 
2000. Building No» 24 was moved and remodeled. .This was necessary 
because of the fact that it occupied the sito of the proposed apart- 
ment house. Several buildings at headquarters received mino •• paoint 

The master painter worked alone until late in June when addi- 
tional help was necessary. 

i:ecrakical department 


This department is in charge of Master Mechanic Robert R. Robinson 
and includes six permanent mechanics, one per nent handyman mechanic, 
one blacksmith, two temporary handymen mechanics and one temporary 

Duties of the above are the maintenance, repair and overhaul 
of all motorized equipment in addition to several hundred axes, shovels 
saws, nicks, and bars that are reconditional each year. 


New equipment purchased included eight one-half ton picups, on 
concrete mixer, one 50 hp caterpillar tractor and various small tool, 

A night shift consisting of two mechanics was started on June l 
This was a great help in taking care of car washing and greasing wit 
no delay in time when cars were unable to come into the garage durin 
the day time. 


This year we were allowed six camps, which is an addition of t; 
more than for last year. The new camp3 are Camp ff 5, Old Faithful (Hi 
Perce Creek) and Camp #6, Snake River. The first two companies arri; 
Kay 4, two on May 15 and two on May 25. 

r rojects are progressing much more rapidly this year than in 1: 
due to the higher type of enrollees and the experienced supervisory 
personnel of "both the Army and the ^ark Service. . 

The morale of the enrolled men this year is excellent. They h 
"been subjept to some trying conditions and almost without exception 
worked without complaining. 

Because of the shortage of trucks for transportation, we have 
unable to work some of the first projects as they are listed in the i 
plans. This situation was met "by working all projects that were nea 
the main camps and consequently the work program as a whole has not 
held hack appreciably. Our rented equipment has thus far proven ver; 
•unsatisfactory. • This is "because of the exorbitant arice we have had 
pay and because of the poor condition of the trucks. To keep down e: 
penses trucks have been rented without dribers which has placed cons: 
able responsibility on the government and has resulted in some minor 
understandings. • Since we were able to keep the men at the camps pj 
employed without the services ofadditional trucks no more than three 
rented trucks have been used at one time and these will probably be ] 
leased early in July, 

By the end of June two side camps had been established; one on 
Southeast Arm of Yellowstone lake, to complete a warehouse and dock 1 
had been started in 1935; the other near the Bechler River ranger stt 
for the purpose of construction a telephone line to the boundary Cre< 
patrol cabin. 

There is located at each camp an educational advisor and they i 

aiding considerably in organizing talks, programs, educational tripsj 

athletics. A regular schedule of weekly talks has been arranged by 1 
ranger force and the park naturalist. 



The Civil Works program was commenced on December 15, 1933 and 
effectively continued until April 19, 1934, the closing date of all 
federal Civil 'Vorks projects. 

Personnel for this program was obtained from the Montana and 
Wyoming reemployment offices, an equal quota of men "being obtained 
from each state. Ten days after openin - of the program 225 men were 
at work on 20 different projects. This force was employed for the 
first 90 days after which time it was gradually reduced 11% a week. 
A good ty^e of labor was secured for the most part. Accidents were 
not serious and very few. Equipment furnished by the National Park 
and haulin the necessary materia It and supplies, though cost for 
maintenance was borne for the most part b;- £he program. A minimum 
of expenditures were made for equipment and su plies as requested by 
Administrator Hopkins, a small gas shovel was also furnished by for a 
short time to excavate top soil for the Mammoth landscaping projects 
and the Mammoth auto camp improvement. 

All pro jects were located within ten miles of Mammoth, the base 
camp. Housing facilities were obtained by remodeling the present 
stone barracks which, with the old bunk houses, accommodated the 
large force. Two settings at the mess were required during the first 
part oi the program until the storage room was converted into an 
auxiliary dining and mess hall. Two spike camps were established for 
a short period due to the inaccessibility of the projects to motor 
vehicles. One camp was established, at Lower Blacktail Deer Creek on 
the Yellowstone ^iver and one for trail construction ab ut four miles 
up the Yellowstone -"iiver from Gardiner; the latter camp relieving tae 
cong stion in Mammoth somewhat. Performance from both camp spike 
for the entire program was very satisfactory. The camp near Gardaier 
was a permanent tent camp which was established to accommodate 50 
men or more with all necessary materials wad" supplies packed in. 
Weather condition at that season of the year were ideal for working 
a large camp of men. 

The program called for two water and sewer projects, six lands- 
caping, five road and trail, three building and f ur miscellaneous 
projects. Twenty worthwhile projects were carried on under this pro- 
gram that could not have been done from regular park funds. Two pro- 
jects that were origina ly scheduled were not started due to their 
inaccessibility and weather conditions. All other projects were 
practically completed. 

Four accountants and clerks were employed in cooperation with 
the regular park administrative force. All projects were supervised 
by the interested department heads with the active c operation of the 
engineering department under Mr. Lord. 


A total of 12,506 man days, totaling an expenditure of ^70,402,/ 
were worked during the program. 

Accomplishments during the program were entirely satisfactory a! 
all projects were very much needed in view of the existing economy 
program for regular park work. 


The unexpected large increase in travel was reflected in increaj 
ed "business for the operators. By the end of June the percentage of 
increase of all operators was practically the same percentage of in- 
crease as -the travel. The poor season of 1933 caused the operators • 
refrain from making any material changes in their operations for fac 
ties although some minor changes were made "by the various operators • 

Yellowstone Park u otel Company ; The maintenance wor of the ca: 
penters and paointers were carried on as usual. 

Yellowstone Park Lodge & Camps Company : Improvements consist o: 
installing 300 feet of new six-inch pipe line into the Mammoth plung< 
and other improv ments in the water system. Painting of cabin fl or; 
furniture and the inside of washrooms and toilet buildin;s was carri* 
on in the various n.usekeeoin - cabin units as well as some of the 
cabins in the various lodges. It was necessary to remove a many tree 
around the housekeeping areas that were "blown down "by heavy winds. 
*■ small building was constructed at Canyon Lodge for the housing of 
the chlorinating machine to be used at that location. 

C. A. Hamilton; The Old Faithful swimming pool, purchased "by 1 
^amilt;n last year from Mr. H. P. Brothers, was remodeled and was 
ready for use when the first park visitors arrived. The swimming poc 
has proven ver t . popular. It is enclosea and. affords comfortable batt 
both day and night. 

Pryor and Trischman; Minor improv, ments were made at the Canyor 
store, both exterior and interior, including the installation: of 
electric refrigeration. A smaJl dance floor was installed at the 
^m oth coffee shop bu this will not be used unless approval is re- 
ceived from the Director for permitting dancing at this location. 

Haynes Picture Shops, Inc.t At Mammoth minor changes were made 
shop in the automobile campground, including removing partitions, 
re-arranging windows and doors, adding rear porch and door, com- 
pletely redeco rationing both inside and outside, and repainting the 
exterior of the residence building, reparing and repainting roof 
and remodeling inside thereof. At the headquarters building at 


Karmoth, the main shop was repainted and some remodeling was done in- 
side. The inside of th , shops at Old Faithful auto camp, Fishing 
Bridge, Canyon and Thumb auto camps were remodeled. Two especially- 
designed photograph coping machines, one for Old Faithful and one 
for Tanmoth, were added to the equipment items. 

Yeilowst -ne Park Transportation Company; The usual painting 
and repair work on park "buses and trucks and other properties has 
"been c ^-tinued. 

Yellowstone Park Boat Company : Two small speed "boats and four 
Mullins steel rowhoats designed for outboard motors were purchased. 
The usual repairing and paointing of boats were carried on and a small 
addition made to the table on Stevenson Island. It is contemplated 
to place a roof over this table. 

Yellowstone Park F uel Company ; At old Faithful, Fishing Bridge 
and Canyon small tents or cahins were erected as sleeping quarters 
for the attendants, thus enabling many customers to he served after 
closing hours. New tarpaulin tops were installed on the wood piles 
at Fishing Bridge and Canyon. Bundles have "been enlarged to 16" in 


The Bureau of Public Roads, the US Public Health Service, Bur- 
eau of Entomoiogy, Bureau of Fisheries, Weather Bureau, Forest Ser- 
vice and War Department have all cooperated to the fullest extent 
with officials of the National Park Service in Yellowstone Park dur- 
ing the year just closed. 

Postoff ice: Business has increased over last year by almost 
exactly 1QC%. This includes both summer and winter business, the 
winter havin- been increased by the fact that there were more v/ork- 
men in the park than usual and that the working season began so much 
earlier in the soring 

Assistant Postmaster Clifford C. Marsh was retired for age 
on April 1, 1934. His vacancy has not been filled, since the re- 
ceipts of -fche office for the past year d.; no justify the services 
of an assistant post-aster under the present policy if the depart- 
ment. In th winter a considerable savin-- can be made by employment 
of temporary clerks by the hour inst ad of having a regular clerk or 
assistant postmaster. 

Postmaster C. a. Lindley was reappointed effective May 7, 1934. 

Bureau of Puulic Roads: The major highway work in the park 
under the supervision of the Bureau of Pubjic Roads during the past 
year has consisted chiefly of getting the approximately three-million 


dollar Recovery program underway, all of which is now contracted 
except for a few small bridge contracts. The toal work underway at 
this time includes about 75 miles of grading, 25 miles of "base course 
surfacing, and several major structures. 

Ail of the work now under way should he completed during- 1935, 
and in following the procedure of concentrating - improvement on the 
grand loop route and the poorest sections of entrance roads, the end 
of the 1935 season should find most of the grand loop rraded, except 
the one section from Old Faithful to West Thumb and parts of it sur- 
faced and oiled, together with completed grading on "both the east and 
south entrance roads. 

The norteaa-t entrance from Cooke City to Tower Junction is als< 
under grading construction for about half its length on the Cooke Ci1 
end, and plans for the completion of the grading are ready to coutrac 
as soon as additional funds are availahle. 

Emergency construction projects which were completed during th< 
past year, include the grading on one mile through the **olden Gate 
and the viaduct widening, also the -"base course surfacing of 20 miles 
from Canyon Junction to Tower Junction on the grand loop. One Recov< 
project, the surfacing of 12 miles from Mammoth to 0'f.3idian Cliff has 
just "been finished and another, the slide removal at Overhanging Clii 
is aLout to he completed. 

Weather Bureau: A period of 10 months is covered "by the presei 
report. The last previous weather summary for the superintendents 
annual report included 12 months ending at the close of August, 1933, 
We now surmmarize weather conditions from that time to the end of th< 
fiscal year, June 30, 1934. 

This highly interesting period has "been most conspicuously mar] 
"by a winter of extraordinary mildness and, except in the terminal moi 
hy a continuously mount in ~ deficiency in precipitation. 

September, th mgh without notahly cold weather, averaged nearl; 
two degrees per day "below normal. The first frost of the fall seasoi 
was a killing frost on Septemher 19. The first fall of a measurahle 
amount of snow occured during the night of September 24-25, 5.5 inchc 
being recorded. September's precipitation totaled 1.73 inches, or , l . 
inch more than normal. 

From October to May, inclusive, each month of the eight desplaj 
ed a very strong plus departure from normal temperature. Five of 
those months, October. December, January, February and May, esta"blial 
new high records for mean temperature , and daily mean temperatures fc 
the eight months were on the average, 7... degrees per day above norms 
The winter was much the warmest on record at this place. From Octote 
1 to -kpril 30 daily mean temperatures averaged 34.8 degrees* This W8 

5.1 degrees warmer than the second warmest similar period, which was 
that of 1901-1902, The latter period is rather closely approached "by 
several others. While mean temperatures were high during the time we 
are now considering, the records of extremes have called for no re- 
vision, A temperature as high as 80.0 degrees was registered on hut 
one day, May 28, when 82 was ohserved. Temperatures a fraction under 
80,0, hut recorded to whole numhers as 80, occurred once in September 
and once in June, Winter's lowest temperature was -5 degrees on Feh- 
ruary 25, There were 178 days when minimum temperatures were 32,0 
degrees or lower, and three with zero or lower, June interrupted 
this succession of warm months with a mean temperature of 53,8 degrees, 
which was nearly a degree a day he low May f s, and 2,2 degrees he low 
normal. The last freezing temperature and killing frost occurred on 
June ?, 

, The eight warm months were deficient in precipitation to the 
extent of 6,59 inches. The total precipitation for the entire 10 
months was 11,11 inches, which was 4,57 inches less than normal. The 
total snowfall was 51,7 inches, a little more than half normal, A 
fall of 4,0 inches on Decemher 25 was the heaviest 24-hour snowfall 
of the season, while the greatest average depth of snow on the ground 
was 6,0 inches on Decemher 25 and 26, Septemher, Decemher and June 
exceeded the normal amount of snow, hut the June normal is less than 
an inch and the Septemher normal less than two inches. Precipitation 
amounting to 0,01 inch or more on 89 days. June, with its coolness 
was also rer-arkahle for its heavy precipitation. A total c of 3.48 
inches was caught hy the rain gauge. This was nearly one-fifth of 
an inch greater than any preceding June total, and stands out sharply 
in comparison with May f s 0.42 inch, the lowest on record for that 
month. The greater 24-hour precipitation of the whole* 10 months was 
1,6 inches^ occurring on June 6-7. 

^11 these months, except Septemher, December and June, had higher 
percentages of sunshine than the corresponding months one year earlier 
Relative humidity was lower than a year earlier in October, Karch, 
April and May and higher in June and Novemher. In September it was 
lower in the early morning, and higher at noon and in th'c- evening. 
In Decemher it was lower in the morning and evening and higher at noon. 
In January and February it was higher in the morning and lower at noon 
and in the evening. Light fog was ohservrd on February 23 and June 7. 
There was no dense fog. Thunderstorms occurred" on 25 days. 

Southwest was the prevailing wind direction each month. The 
average velocity for the whole period was 8.8 miles per hour, December* 
average of 11,8 miles per hour was higher than that of any other month 
of any name in the records. The highest velocity for a f ive-minute 
period was 40 miles per hour (from southwest) on September 22 and June 
18. A velocity as high as this does not appear previously in Septem- 
ber records. 


Vital Statistics: There was one death, due to ao: 
"births and 8 marriages. 


Deaths ; Hon. J. B; Kendrick, United States Senator from Wji 
died in Sheridan, Wyoming on November 3, 1933. Senator Kendrick \t 
one of the most "beloved members of Congress and served his state i. 
Senate from 1917 until his death. He was a ver;y fine friend of t; 
Yellowstone and Urand Teton National Parks and*-aided materially ir 
the passage of legislation affecting these two parks. 

Judge George A, Horkan of Bozeman Montana, died in •Sheridan,' 
Wyoming on the same day that Senator Kendrick passfd away. Judge 
Horkan was formerly State Commander of the American legion for 
Montana and the father of Miriam Horkan, former park clerk. He 
was keenly interested in problems affecting the park. 

Mrs, Robert C. Reamer, wife of the architect who designed 0], 
Faithful Inn and Canyon Hotel, died in Seattle, Washington on Dece* 
ber 22, 1933. Mrs. Reamer is the niece of US Commissioner John W, 

General Hugh L. Scott, USA (Retired ) died at Walter Reed Hos 
pital, Washington DC on April 29, 1934 at the age of 80. General 
Scott engaged in the Nez Perce raid through Yellowstone Park in 1£ 
He made several trips to the Yellowstone following his retirement* 
General Scott was regarded as the "best white exponent of the sign 

William C, Corey, former president of the U. S. Steel Corpora 
died in New York City on May 11, 1934 at the age of 68. Mr. Corey 
donated $15,000 toward the construction of the Yellowstone lake Pi 

D. S. Spencer of Salt lake City, retired General Passenger Ag 
for the Union Pacific System, died in Salt lake on June 26, 1934. 
"Uncle Dan" as he was known to everyone, was one of the most enthu 
iastic park "boosters and was res pons ible for directing much travel 
the Yellowstone. 

Visitors; The list of distinguished visitors is necessarily 
small in this report "because of the fact that it covers the period 
fi»om October to June only and does not take in much of the regular 
park season. Among late visitors following the close of the 1933 
season were Dr. Jan Hofman, Dean for Preservation of Historical Mo: 
raents of History Faculty at Comenius University at Brateslave, 
Czecho Slovakia, who arrived on October 11 and a party of Northern 
Pacific officials who arrived on November 14. This party included 
Charles Donnelly, President: J. M, Hannaford, Director and former 


President; H. E. Stevens and James Woodworth, Vice Presidents; and 
T. F. Lowry, Assistant General Manager. 

Arrivals in April included Mr. and Mrs. Randolph Blinn, pro- 
minent newspaper and magazine writers of New York City and Dr. A. !'. 
Bosman, Dean of the College of Agriculture, University of Pert or ia, 
South Africa and Mrs. Boxman. 

Among the prominent visitors in May and June were Bernard Blum, 
,Chief Engineer, Northern Pacific Railway; James Derrig, Assistant 
i Engineer; Governor Frank I". Cooney of Montana; General Prank McCoy, 
USA: F, "'/'. Isaac, Endehoss, Kenyn Colony, British East Africa, exp- 
lorer and naturalist; Nils G. Skield, Director, Swedish Technical 
Museum, Noorkoping Sweden; Henry B. Joy, former president of the 
Packard liotor ^ompany and Good Roads "booster; ids Charl Williams 
Field Secretary, National Educational Association and Vice President, 
Business and Professional Womens Clubs- Professor Franz Heske, 
German forester of international reputation, Tharendt, Germany; Com- 
mander Riley F. McConnell, USN; D. Dem. Dimanesco, Attache from 
Roumania; Mrs. Raymond Mo ley, wife of Professor Mo ley, former As- 
sistant Secretary of State; Judges G. T. McDer: :ott of Kansas and 0. L. 
Phillips of Denver, US Circuit C urt of Appeals; US Senator Clarence 
C. Dill of Washington; Mrs. M. a. Houck, prominent Washington society 
woman; F, L-artin Brown, Director Colorado Biological Survey; George 
C. LcManus, famous cartoonist; Watson Davis, Editor of Science 
Service; and US Congressman John H. Hoeppel of California. The two 
western regions of the Business and Professional Womens Clubs held 
their conveat^on at the Canyon Hotel on June 18 and 1 . The Pi Beta 
Phi Sorority held its convention at Old Faithful from June 24 to 30. 

iXer-oow^f JL &* ll/<*tu^ WUaaJUj.^ PJ~C*AJ*A^'^'J> ^(2?*k*Ljs 

Prepared at the Western Museum Laboratories of 
the Rational Par\ Service with assistance provided by 
the Wor\ Projects Administration — Official Project 
Np. 65-2-08-16, Actional Youth Administration and 
Civilian Conservation Corps.